Chemistry Panel (16 Essential Test)
The Chemistry Panel includes 16 essentials tests including:
1. Sodium (Na)
2. Potassium (K)
3. Chloride (C)
4. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
5. Albumin (Alb)
6. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
7. Bilirubin (Bil) Direct
8. Bilirubin (Bil) Total
9. Aspartate Transaminase (AST)
10. Alanine Transaminase (ALT)
11. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
12. Total Protein
13. Calcium (Ca)
14. Creatinine (Cr)
The Chemistry Panel includes 16 essential tests that are typically requested by your doctor as part of a routine check‐up or annual physical. This panel gives you or your doctor a clearer picture of your overall health.
See below for additional details on its test components.
Note: This panel requires fasting. Do not eat for 10‐12 hours before taking the panel to ensure its accuracy.
•Sodium (Na) Potassium (K), Chloride (C) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) ‐ When tested, irregular values in these “electrolytes” can indicate trouble with your body’s salt/water or acid/base balance. Dehydration, vomiting, medications and kidney problems can cause these health issues.
•Albumin (Alb), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Bilirubin (Bil)‐Direct and Total, Aspartate Transaminase (AST); and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) – These are proteins and enzymes found in the blood. Abnormal levels of any of these tests can indicate liver damage or liver disease.
•Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Calcium (Ca), Creatinine (Cr), Phosporus and Glucose Testing – These tests check for a range of problems that affect the kidneys, including kidney disease. These also measure the waste in the blood that may affect kidney filtration.
Why Do I Need It?:
This is one of the most common blood tests available and it gives you a tremendous amount of information about your health. And of course, it’s at a great value!
Normal ranges can depend on your gender and age. Below are the normal ranges for a healthy adult.
Albumin: 3.5 – 5.0 gm/dL
Alkaline Phosphatase: 50 – 160 units/L
Bilirubin Direct: up to 0.4 mg/dL
Bilirubin Total: up to 1.0 mg/dL
BUN: 7 – 18 mg/dL
Calcium: 8.5 – 10.5 mg/dL
Carbon Dioxide: 20‐29 mEq/L
Chloride: 98 – 106 mEq/L
Creatinine: 0.6 – 1.2 mg/dL
Glucose: 70‐110 mg/dL
Potassium: 3.5 – 5.0 mEq/L
Total Protein: 6.0 – 8.4 gm/dL
ALT: 1 – 21 units/L
AST: 7 – 27 units/L
Sodium: 135 – 145 mEq/L
Phosphorus: 3.0 – 4.5 mg/dL
High Results Indicate:
ALBUMIN: Elevated levels of albumin could indicate dehydration.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE: Elevated levels could indicate bone growth or disease, liver disease, leukemia or malignancies in the bone or liver.
BILIRUBIN DIRECT: Elevated levels could indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis, neoplasm or biliary disease.
BILIRUBIN TOTAL: Elevated levels could indicate hepatitis, cirrhosis, neoplasm, alcoholism, hemolytic disease, biliary obstruction or anorexia.
BUN: Elevated levels can indicate impaired kidney function.
CALCIUM: Elevated levels can indicate dehydration, hyperparathyroidism, kidney disease, bone cancer or high Vitamin D, Vitamin A or Calcium intake.
CARBON DIOXIDE: Elevated levels can indicate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, or pneumonia.
CHLORIDE: Elevated levels of chloride can indicate dehydration, high sodium or kidney disease.
CREATININE: Elevated levels can indicate kidney damage or infection, prostate disease or urinary tract obstruction.
GLUCOSE: Elevated levels could indicate hyperglycemia or diabetes.
POTASSIUM: Elevated levels could indicate excessive potassium intake, hyperkalemia or kidney failure or damage.
TOTAL PROTEIN: Elevated levels could indicate dehydration or high levels of albumin and/or globulin.
ALT: Elevated levels could indicate liver disease, hepatocyte injury, hepatitis, drug therapy or biliary disease.
AST: Elevated levels could indicate alcoholism, cirrhosis, hepatitis, drug therapy or biliary disease.
SODIUM: Elevated levels of sodium could indicate hypernatremia or dehydration.
PHOSPHORUS: Elevated levels could indicate hypoparathyroidism or diabetic ketoacidosis.
Low Results Indicate:
ALBUMIN: Low levels of albumin could indicate liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, heart failure or low intake or absorption of protein.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE: Low levels could indicate a zinc deficiency, hypothyroidism, Vitamin C or B6 deficiency, excessive Vitamin D intake or malnutrition.
BILIRUBIN DIRECT: Low levels are generally not a concern and are not monitored.
BILIRUBIN TOTAL: Low levels are generally not a concern and are not monitored.
BUN: Low levels are generally not a concern and are not monitored.
CALCIUM: Low levels can indicate parathyroid gland problems and intestinal absorption problems.
CARBON DIOXIDE: Low levels can indicate cirrhosis or liver failure.
CHLORIDE: Low levels of chloride can indicate low sodium, emphysema or chronic lung disease.
CREATININE: Low levels are usually not a concern, but may be caused by decreased muscle mass or pregnancy.
GLUCOSE: Low levels could indicate hypoglycemia.
POTASSIUM: Low levels of potassium could indicate hypokalemia, dehydration or acetaminophen overdose.
TOTAL PROTEIN: Low total protein levels can indicate a liver or kidney disorder.
ALT: Low levels are generally not a concern and are not monitored.
AST: Low levels could indicate uremia, Vitamin B6 deficiency or drug therapy.
SODIUM: Low levels could indicate hyponatremia, fluid retention or too much water intake.
PHOSPHORUS: Low levels of phosphorus could indicate hypercalcemia, overuse of diuretics, hypothyroidism or chronic antacid use.
What Type of Physician Should You See?
Contact a general physician if your results are abnormal. Your physician will determine if you need to see a specialist.